Difference between revisions of "Primary Data Collection"

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== Read First ==<onlyinclude>
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Primary data is directly generated by the researcher. Household surveys are the prototypical example of primary data collection. Unlike [[Secondary Data Sources]], primary data collection can be personally directed by the researcher to ensure it meets the standards of quality, availability, statistical power, and sampling required for a particular research inquiry. With globally increasing access to survey tools such as software, field manuals, and specialized firms, data collected and owned by the researcher has become the dominant method of empirical inquiry in development economics.</onlyinclude>
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Primary data is data directly collected by the researcher through surveys, interviews or experiments. Household surveys are the prototypical example of primary data. Researchers can personally direct primary data collection to ensure that data meets the standards of [[Monitoring Data Quality | quality]], availability, [[Power Calculations in Stata | statistical power]] and [[Sampling & Power Calculations | sampling]] required for a particular research question. With globally increasing access to survey tools and [[Software Tools | software]], field manuals, and specialized [[Survey Firm | survey firms]], primary data has become the dominant source for empirical inquiry in development economics.
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== Read First ==
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* The large majority of primary data comes from personal interviews. Depending on the research, these may take the form of household surveys, business (firm) surveys, or agricultural (farm) surveys.
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*Primary data collection typically requires a great deal of foresight, planning and coordination. Steps to preparing and conducting primary data collection follow.
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== Guidelines ==
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The following are critical steps in [[Preparing for Field Data Collection | preparing for]] and conducting primary data collection:
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*[[Pre-Registration | Pre-register]] research and consider producing a [[Pre-Analysis Plan | pre-analysis plan]].
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*Acquire [[Human Subjects Approval | human subjects approval]] and get set up with the proper tools for [[Encryption | encryption]] and [[De-identification | de-identification]].
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*Compile the [[Survey Budget | survey budget]].
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*Determine the sampling frame, calculate [[Sample Size | sample size]], conduct [[Sampling & Power Calculations | sampling and power calculations]], and [[Randomization in Stata|randomize]] treatment.
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*[[Questionnaire Design | Design]] and [[Questionnaire Translation | translate]] the survey instrument.
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*[[Questionnaire Programming|Program]] the instrument if data is being collected electronically via a [[Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI)]] or [[Computer-Assisted Field Entry (CAFE)]] survey.
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*Establish [[Survey Protocols | survey protocols]].
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*[[Survey Pilot|Pilot]] the survey instrument – both the [[Piloting Survey Content | content]] and [[Piloting Survey Protocols | protocols]].
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*[[Procuring a Survey Firm|Procure]] a [[Survey Firm | a survey firm]], taking care to prepare detailed [[Survey Firm TOR|Terms of Reference]].
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*[[Enumerator Training | Train]] enumerators.
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*[[Monitoring Data Quality | Monitor]] data quality through [[Back Checks | backchecks]], high frequency checks, and other methods.
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*Maintained an organized data folder via <code>[[iefolder]]</code>.
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*[[Data Cleaning |Clean]] and [[Data Analysis | analyze]] data.
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*Should you wish, [[Publishing Data | make data available]] to other researchers to promote research transparency and [[Reproducible Research | reproducibility]].
  
 
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== Back to Parent ==
== Types of primary data  ==
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This article is part of the topic [[Primary Data Collection]]
The most common types of primary data are personal interviews. Depending on the research, these may take the form of household surveys, business (firm) surveys, or agricultural (farm) surveys. Some studies may include objective measurements such as [[Anthropometric Indicators]].
 
 
 
== Modes of primary data collection ==
 
Surveys can be conducted on paper ([[Pen-and-Paper Personal Interviews (PAPI)]]) or electronically ([[Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI)]]), or a combination of the two ([[Computer-Assisted Field Entry (CAFE)]]).
 
 
 
== Preparing for primary data collection ==
 
The following are critical steps in preparing for primary data collection:
 
* Determine sampling frame
 
* Conduct sampling, based on [[Sample Size]] calculations, taking care to do so [[Randomization in Stata|reproducibly]]
 
* [[Questionnaire Design and Translation|Design and translate the survey instrument]]
 
* [[Survey Pilot|Pilot the Survey Instrument]]
 
* [[Questionnaire Programming|Program the survey instrument]] if data is being collected electronically
 
* [[Procuring a Survey Firm|Procure a Survey Firm]], taking care to prepare detailed [[Survey Firm TOR|Terms of Reference]]
 
* [[Preparing for Field Data Collection|Prepare for field work]]
 
* Create a [[Data Quality Assurance Plan]]
 
* [[Enumerator Training| Train data collectors]]
 
  
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==

Revision as of 22:36, 29 April 2019

Primary data is data directly collected by the researcher through surveys, interviews or experiments. Household surveys are the prototypical example of primary data. Researchers can personally direct primary data collection to ensure that data meets the standards of quality, availability, statistical power and sampling required for a particular research question. With globally increasing access to survey tools and software, field manuals, and specialized survey firms, primary data has become the dominant source for empirical inquiry in development economics.

Read First

  • The large majority of primary data comes from personal interviews. Depending on the research, these may take the form of household surveys, business (firm) surveys, or agricultural (farm) surveys.
  • Primary data collection typically requires a great deal of foresight, planning and coordination. Steps to preparing and conducting primary data collection follow.

Guidelines

The following are critical steps in preparing for and conducting primary data collection:

Back to Parent

This article is part of the topic Primary Data Collection

Additional Resources

Oxfam provides a detailed case study of how to use electronic data collection (SurveyCTO) combined with Stata code to improve data quality in the field.